Browse through the below given sections to know more about the geographical, political, historical and administrative aspects of Turkmenistan.

1. Information About Country

Geographical Position

Turkmenistan is situated in the western part of Central Asia. In the North and North-East it borders with republics of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, in the South and South-East it borders with Islamic republics of Iran and Afghanistan and on the west side it is surrounded by the Caspian Sea.

The territory of Turkmenistan is 491,2 thousand square kilometers. The territory spreads on 1100 kilometers from the west to the east and on 650 kilometers from the north to the south.

Northern and central part of the territory of Turkmenistan is occupied by sand deserts of Turan lowland – central Zaunguz and South-Eastern Karakums. The South and south-east are occupied by the mountains. The highest peak of Turkmenistan is in the Koitendag (3139 m).

The lowest place in Turkmenistan is Akchakaya depression (-81 m).

Historically, ancient trade routes met on the territory of Turkmenistan and one of these routes being the “Great Silk Road”.


The climate in Turkmenistan is acutely continental with the exception of seacoast zone.

Average annual air temperature on all the territory of Turkmenistan is positive and it changes on the flat part of Turkmenistan from 12-17 C in the north to 15-18 C in the south-east. The coldest month is January.

Summer is very hot and dry on the flat territory (in July average air temperature is more than 32 C). Average annual amount of precipitation varies from 85 mm (Karabogasgol bay) to 398 mm in the mountains and foothills.


Turkmenistan is a multinational state. Representatives of more than 100 nationalities live in the country. The major part of the population is represented by Turkmens.

State language

Turkmen language is a state language. It belongs to the Turkic group of languages. Compulsory study of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian is legislated in the country.


The most widely spread religion on the territory of Turkmenistan is Islam. There are functioning mosques on the territory of Turkmenistan: the largest of them are in Ashgabat, Geokdepe and Kipchak. Along with Muslim mosques there are functioning temples of other religions.

The state guarantees freedom of religions and their equal protection by the law. Religious organizations are separated from the state and do not interfere into state affairs. State education system is separated from religious organizations and is secular.

Administrative-territorial system

Administrative-territorial system of Turkmenistan is represented by five velayats (Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary), each of which in its turn falls into etraps. In Turkmenistan there are 50 etraps, 16 towns, 9 towns in etraps, 77 settlements. 565 gengeshilks (rural municipal formations) and 1937 rural communities. All towns with the exeption of Asghabat – the capital of Turkmenistan – are subordinated to the velayats on the territory of which they are located.

Ashgabat - THE white marbled capital

Ashgabat is founded in 1881. It is situated at the foothills of the Kopetdag and is the largest city of the country.

According to its administrative-legislative status, it is equated to a velayat and also is divided into five etraps: Azaltyk, Kopetdag, etrap named after the President S.A. Niyazov, Chandybil and Archabil.

Ashgabat is an administrative, industrial, cultural and scientific centre of the country. Educational, scientific and intellectual labor potential has been formed here; transport and communication systems, services sphere, trade, hotel business and entertainment industries have been developed.

Today, Ashgabat is a white marbled capital charming its guests by unusual beauty of administrative and dwelling buildings, museums, theatres, high class hotels, parks, squares, magnificent monuments.

Numbers of ministry buildings as well as offices, higher educational institutions, high-rise dwelling buildings with advanced comfort and design and other projects of socio-cultural function which create unrepeated architectural ensemble have already been built on the territory of Ashgabat. In 2008, one of the sights of the city was included in the Guinness Book of Records: it is the highest flagpole of the world (139 meters), on which the flag of independent Turkmenistan – the symbol of statehood, its pride and honor, testimony of patriotism, morality and new revival of the nation –proudly streams in the boundless sky. The size of the gigantic cloth is 52, 5 to 35 meters; its weight is 420 kg.

2. Political System

Geographic position

Turkmenistan is a democratic, jural and secular state. State governing is executed in the form of presidential republic.

On February 11, 2007, by nation-wide voting, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov was elected as the President of Turkmenistan.

The Constitution of Turkmenistan is the Main law of the state according to which political system of Turkmenistan is based on the principle of division of powers into legislative power, executive power and judicial power that function independently balancing each other.

Bearer of sovereignty and the only source of political system of Turkmenistan are people.

Turkmenistan recognizes priority of admitted international law; it is a full rights enjoying party of the world community; and follows the principles of peaceful coexistence, refusal from the use of force and non-interference into affairs of other countries in its external policy.

On December 12, 1995 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Resolution of “Constant neutrality of Turkmenistan” which was supported by 185 states - members of UN. Its adoption was the testimony of approving peaceful foreign-policy course of Turkmenistan and its constructive role in international affairs by community of nations.

The President of Turkmenistan, the head of the state and executive power is The Supreme Official in the country. He is at the head of Cabinet of Ministers – the Government of Turkmenistan.

President is the Commander in Chief of Armed Forces of the country; he appoints ambassadors and chief executive officers of executive power personnel, including administrators of ministries and departments, velayats, towns and etraps.

Mejlis (Parliament) is a constantly functioning legislative organ of Turkmenistan. Mejlis adopts Constitution, constitutional laws, laws, decrees and other acts.

Judicial power in Turkmenistan is executed by Supreme kazyet and other kazyets.

Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan is a collective excutive-administrative organ which performs guidance over all organs of executive power and governing of Turkmenistan and provides their concerted activity.

Executive power in velayats, towns and eraps is accomplished by hakims.

3. About Our President

BERDYMUHAMEDOV Gurbanguly Myalikgulyevich

He was born in 1957 in the village council Babarab of Geoktepinskiy etrap. In 1979 he graduated from Turkmen State Medical Institute. He is a Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor.

He started his career in 1979. Since that time till 1997 he held different positions in the system of Ministry of Healthcare and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan: Professor, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Therapeutic Dentistry, Dean of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Turkmen State Medical Institute, Director of the Dentistry Centre of the Ministry of Healthcare and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. In 1997 he was appointed as Minister of Healthcare and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, Executive Director of the State Fund of Healthcare Development of Turkmenistan, Charge d`Affaires of the Director of Turkmen State Medical Institute.

April 3, 2001 by Decree of the President of Turkmenistan he was appointed as the Chairman Deputy of Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan.

From December 21, 2006 by the decision of the State Security Council of Turkmenistan and Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan he was appointed as a Charge d`Affaires ad interim of the President of Turkmenistan, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan.

By the nation-wide voting held on February 11, 2007 he was elected as the President of Turkmenistan and on March 30, 2007 he was elected as the Chairman of Halk Maslahaty, Chairman of the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan.

He holds medals «Galkynyş», «Prezidentin Yyldyzy», medal of the President of Turkmenistan «Garaşsyz Türkmenistana bolan beyik söygüsi üçin», «Watan», medal «Watana bolan söygüsi üçin», «Türkmenistanyn Garaşsyzlygynyn 11 yllygyna».

4. Ministries and Departments

The main economic organ of the country is the Ministry of Economy and Development of Turkmenistan.

The Ministry carries out elaboration and conduction of state policy, oriented to achieving strategic goals and the realization of priority tasks of socio-economic development of the country, state regulation of the economy and elaboration of suggestions on perfecting economic policy and normative-legal regulation in this sphere.

State organ in financial sphere is the Ministry of Finance of Turkmenistan.

The Ministry carries out implementation and realization of state policies and normative legal regulations in the sphere of finance, budget, taxation, insurance, audit activity, accounting and financial statements.

Monetary-emissive organ is the Central Bank of Turkmenistan.

Main functions of the Central Bank include guaranteeing the stability of national currency, steady work of banking system and supporting price stability.

Tax authorities of Turkmenistan are the Main tax authority and its subdivisions in velayats, towns and etraps.

The organ of state governing in the sphere of trade, foreign-economic relations and consumers` co-operatives is the Ministry of Trade and Foreign-Economic Relations of Turkmenistan.

The Ministry observes state interests on external markets in accordance with international agreements of Turkmenistan in the sphere of foreign-economic links.

The Organ providing realization of customs policy is the State customs service of Turkmenistan.

Customs service carries out the task of providing economic security protection of the country, elaborating and using customs-tariff mechanism, conducting control over observance of system of permissions for import and export of goods.

Institute of strategic planning and economic development of Turkmenistan realizes scientific-research elaborations in the field of medium-term and long-term forecasting, defines priorities of economic development, prepares scientific basis for elaborating national programs of socio-economic development of the country and fields of the economy.

Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Turkmenistan contributes to the development process of the economy of Turkmenistan, to its integration to world economic system, to formation of modern industrial, financial and trading infrastructure, to creation of favorable conditions for entrepreneurial activity, trading-economic and scientific-technical links of Turkmenistan with other countries.

The Chamber organizes international and foreign trade fairs in Turkmenistan. And also, carries out preparation and execution of exhibitions of Turkmen products abroad.

The State Commodity exchange of Turkmenistan is the main organizational structure of whole-sale market of Turkmenistan which by the level of its specialization is universal and receives various kinds of goods and contracts to stock-exchange auctions.

Ministries, departments, enterprises and organizations and also individuals can realize products, goods and raw materials produced on the territory of Turkmenistan and imported to Turkmenistan through auctions at the state Commodity exchange of Turkmenistan.

5. Contact Information of Ministries & Departments

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 21 54
fax: (+99 312) 35 42 41
Ministry of Economy and Development of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 51 11 34
fax: (+99 312) 35 09 39
e-mail: minekonom@online.tm
Ministry of Finance of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 51 05 63
fax: (+99 312) 51 06 87
e-mail: omeft@online.tm
Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry
and Mineral Resources of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 40 30 01
fax: (+99 312) 40 30 82
e-mail: tm.nebitgas@online.tm
Main Tax Office of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 48 24 02
fax: (+99 312) 48 24 11
State Commodity Exchange of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 43 21
fax: (+99 312) 51 03 04
e-mail: info@exchange.gov.tm
State Office “Turkmen standards”
tel.: (+99 312) 49 58 59
fax: (+99 312) 21 04 98
e-mail: ggikau@online.tm
Ministry of Trade and External Economic Affairs of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 10 47
fax: (+99 312) 39 51 08
e-mail: mintrcc@online.tm
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 45 94
fax: (+99 312) 35 13 52
e-mail: expo@online.tm
State Customs Office of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 38 06 00
fax: (+99 312) 35 22 07
e-mail: customs@online.tm
Central Bank of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 38 10 03
fax: (+99 312) 35 50 86
e-mail: merkezb3@online.tm
State Insurance Organization of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 22 19 55
fax: (+99 312) 22 19 50
e-mail: datig@online.tm
Ministry of Agriculture of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 66 91
fax: (+99 312) 35 05 18
Ministry of Communications of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 21 53
fax: (+99 312) 35 52 06
e-mail: mincom@telecom.tm
Ministry of Energy and Industry of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 37 94 59
fax: (+99 312) 39 61 20
e-mail: kuwwat@online.tm
Ministry of Motor Transport of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 05 36
fax: (+99 312) 51 11 03
Ministry of Railroad of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 43 34
fax: (+99 312) 39 28 74
Ministry of Textile Industry of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 21 03 03
fax: (+99 312) 35 54 42
Ministry of Construction of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 51 15 04
fax: (+99 312) 35 35 30
Ministry of Industry of Construction Materials of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 60 66
fax: (+99 312) 39 58 84
Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 88 12
fax: (+99 312) 39 88 11
Ministry of Health Protection of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 40 05 71
fax: (+99 312) 40 04 16
e-mail: healthtm@online.tm
State Committee for Tourism and Sport of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 47 77
fax: (+99 312) 39 77 71
“Turkmendenizderyayollary” Department (Turkmen maritime and river traffic)
tel.: (+993 243) 2 03 60
fax: (+993 243) 2 07 44
State National Office “Turkmenhowayollary” (Turkmen airlines)
tel.: (+99 312) 35 10 52
fax: (+99 312) 35 44 02
e-mail: aviahead@online.tm
Ministry of Culture and TV and Radio Broadcasting
tel.: (+99 312) 35 30 61
fax: (+99 312) 35 35 60
Supreme Council on Science and Technology under the President of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 20 80
fax: (+99 312) 39 67 72
State Migratory Office of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 10 47
fax: (+99 312) 39 30 75
State Joint-Stock Corporation “Turkmenhaly” (Turkmen carpets)
tel.: (+99 312) 35 39 44
fax: (+99 312) 39 60 89
State Concern “Turkmenhimiya” (Turkmen Chemistry)
tel.: (+99 312) 43 20 55
fax: (+99 312) 43 59 34
Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 37 37
fax: (+99 312) 39 31 84
State Concern “Turkmenawtoyollary”
(Turkmen roads)
tel.: (+99 312) 51 07 00
fax: (+99 312) 51 08 00
State Union “Turkmenatlary” (Turkmen horses)
tel.: (+99 312) 27 64 66
fax: (+99 312) 27 64 57
Turkmen National Institute for
Democracy and Human Rights under the President of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 38 08 29
Institute of State and Law under the President of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 38 04 59
fax: (+99 312) 35 09 66
Humanitarian Association of World Turkmens
tel.: (+99 312) 35 14 62
fax: (+99 312) 35 62 09
e-mail: mekan@online.tm
Institute of History under the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 35 31 38
fax: (+99 312) 39 86 87
State Turkmen Publishing Services
tel.: (+99 312) 38 60 20
fax: (+99 312) 21 17 86
Institute of Strategic Planning and Economic Development of Turkmenistan
tel.: (+99 312) 39 55 76
fax: (+99 312) 39 55 76

Hakimliks (Municipalities)

Hakimlik of Ashgabat
tel.: (+99 312) 35 00 78
fax: (+99 312) 35 79 50
Hakimlik of Akhal velayat
tel.: (+99 312) 51 11 75
fax: (+99 312) 39 76 45
Hakimlik of Balkan velayat
tel.: (+99 312) 39 63 40
fax: (+99 312) 35 74 30
Hakimlik of Dashoguz velayat
tel.: (+99 312) 35 78 43
fax: (+99 312) 35 78 43
Hakimlik of Lebap velayat
tel.: (+99 312) 39 30 66
fax: (+99 312) 39 30 66
Hakimlik of Mary velayat
tel.: (+99 312) 35 54 23
fax: (+99 312) 6 06 28
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov
Latest News

The delegation of Turkmenistan headed by the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimukhamedov attended the 65-th session of General Assembly of the United Nations in New York on 19-23 September, 2010.

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Quick Facts
Capital City :Ashgabat

Population : 5,097,028

Geographic Co-ordinates :
40 00 N, 60 00 E

Area - total: 488,100 sq km